Chronological Listing of the Rulers of England

 Those rulers who are known to have issued coins are highlighted in blue

Kings of Kent

Horsa AD 449-455  
Hengest                                    a 455-488  
Aesc                                          a 488-512  
Octa                                          a 512-unknown  
Eormenric                                 a unknown-562  
Aethelberht I                            a 562-618 Third Bretwalda - First Christian King of Kent
Eadbald                                     a 618-640  
Earconberht                              a 640-664  
Ecgberht I                                 a 664-673  
Hlothhere 673-685  
Eadric 685-687  
Oswine 687-691  
Wihtraed                                   a 691-725  
Aethelberht II                           a 725-762  
Eadberht I           725-763  
Eardwulf 747-765  
Sigeraed         762  
Eanmund         762  
Heahberht 764-765  
Ecgberht II 765-780  
Ealhmund                                  a 780-784  
Eadberht Praen 784-798  
Eadwald         798  
Cuthraed 798-807  
Baldraed 807-825  

In AD 449 Kent was invaded by the Saxon brothers Hengest and Horsa to become the first of the seven Anglo-Saxon kingdoms.  Because of it's proximity to Europe, Kent was more cultured than the other Saxon kingdoms, thus often making it a target of the others.

AD 455 - "Hengest and Horsa fought Vortigern the King, in the place called Aegelesthrep his brotherHorsa was killed, and after that Hengest and his sonAesc received the kingdom.  The Britons gave up Kent, and in a great fear fled to London."  Anglo-Saxon Chronicles

Kings of Essex

Aescwine c. 527-587  
Sledda c. 587-603  
Saeberht c. 603-616 First Christian King of Essex
Sexraed c. 616-617  
Saeward c. 616-617  
Sigeberht I c. 617-653  
Sigeberht II c. 653-660  
Swithhelm c. 660-665  
Sighere c. 665-685  
Saebbi c. 665-695  
Sigeheard c. 695-708  
Offa c. 708-709  
Saelraed c. 709-746  
Swithraed c. 746-758  
Sigeric c. 758-798  
Sigeraed 798-825  

Kings of Sussex

Aelle c. 477-514 First Bretwalda
Cyssa c. 514-unknown  

The genealogy of the kings of Sussex has not been preserved beyond the fact that Aelle, the founder of the kingdom, is considered the first Bretwalda and was succeeded by his son Cyssa.

AD 477 - "Aelle came to Britain, and his three sons Cymen, Wlencing and Cyssa, with three ships, landing at the placeCymensora.  There they killed many Welsh and drove some in flight into the Weald." Anglo-Saxon Chronicles

Kings of Mercia

Creoda c. 585-593  
Pybba c. 593-606  
Ceorl c. 606-626  
Eawa 626-641  
Penda 632-641  
Wulfhere 657-675 First Christian King of Mercia
Aethelred 675-704  
Coenred 704-709  
Ceolred 709-716  
Aethelbald 716-757  
Beonred         757  
Offa 757-796  
Ecgfrith         796  
Coenwulf 796-821  
Ceolwulf I 821-823  
Beornwulf 823-825  
Beorhtwulf 825-827  
Wiglaf                                        a 827-840  
Brihtwulf 840-852  
Burghred 852-874  
Ceolwulf II 874-880  

The kingdom of Mercia came to prominence under the great pagan warrior Penda, who was killed by Oswy of Northumbria in 654.  The greatest of the Mercian kings, Offa, ascended the throne in 757.  Offa brought practically the whole of England under his sway and was addressed as "brother" by the great Frankish king Charlemagne.  The kingdom was surrendered to the Vikings in 874.

AD 798 - "Coenwulf, king of Mercia, ravaged the Kentish people.  Their king Praen was taken, and they led him bound into Mercia and had his eyes put out and his hands cut off."                    Anglo-Saxon Chronicles

Kings of East Anglia

Wuffa                                        a c. 571-578  
Tytila                                         a c. 578-593  
Raedwald c. 593-624 Fourth Bretwalda - Sutton Hoo King
Earpwald c. 624-627 First Christian King of East Anglia
Siegeberht 627-634  
Anna                                          a c. 633-654  
Ecgric 634-635  
Aethelhere         654  
Aethelwold 654-663  
Aldwulf 663-713  
Aelfwald 713-749  
Aethelberht 749-794  

The East Anglian kings were known as the Wuffings (wolf people) from Wuffa (the wulf), who is the first historically identifiable king.  His grandson Raedwald, was the fourth Bretwalda, and is considered the king who was buried in the long-boat excavated at Sutton Hoo in 1939.

AD 794 - "Offa, king of Mercia, commanded Aethelberht's head to be struck off."                       Anglo-Saxon Chronicles

Kings of Northumbria

Ida 547-559  
Glappa 559-560  
Adda 560-568  
Aethelric 568-572  
Theodoric 572-579  
Frithuwald 579-585  
Hussa 585-592  
Aethelfrith 592-617  
Edwin 617-633 Fifth Bretwalda - First Christian King of Northumbria
Eanfrith 633-634  
Saint Oswald 634-641 Sixth Bretwalda
Oswy 641-670 Seventh Bretwalda
Ecgfrith 670-685  
Aldfrith 685-704  
Osred I 704-716  
Coenred 716-718  
Osric 718-729  
Ceolwulf 729-737 Died as a Monk in 760
Eadberht 737-758  
Oswulf 758-759  
Aethelwald 759-765 Archbishop of York 734-766
Alchred 765-774  
Aethelred I 778-788 First Reign
Elfwald I 778-788  
Osred II 788-790  
Aethelred I 790-796 Second Reign
Eardwulf 796-810  
Eanred 810-841  
Aethelred II 841-844 First Reign
Raedwulf        844  
Aethelred II 844-849 Second Reign
Osberht 849-869  

Kings of the West Saxons

Cerdic                                        a 519-534  
Cynric                                        a 534-560  
Ceawlin                                      a 560-591 Second Bretwalda
Ceola 591-597  
Ceolwulf 597-611  
Cynegils 611-643 First Christian King of the West Saxons
Cenwalh 643-672  
Cenwalh 643-672  
Sexburg 672-674  
Cenfus         674  
Aescwine 674-676  
Centwine 676-685  
Caedwalla 685-688  
Ine 688-726  
Aethelheard 726-740  
Cuthred 740-756  
Sigeberht 756-757  
Cynewulf 756-786  
Beorhric 786-802  
Ecgberht                                    a 802-839  
Aethelwulf                                 a 839-858  
Aethelbald 858-860  
Aethelberht 860-866  
Aethelred I 866-871  

The kingdom of Wessex, which was eventually to asorb all of the other Saxon kingdoms, was founded by Cerdic, who came to Britain with his son Cynric in 495.

AD 495 - "There came to Britain Cerdic and Cynric his son, with five ships.  On that same day they fought the Welsh."                                                                                                                                     AD 519 - "Cerdic and Cynric received the West-Saxon kingdom, and the same year they fought with the Britons.  The royal line of Wessex has ruled from that day."                                                     Anglo-Saxon Chronicles

The Bretwaldas

Aelle of Sussex c. 477-514  
Ceawlin of Wessex                   a 560-591  
Aethelberht I of Kent 562-618  
Raedwald of East Anglia c. 593-624  
Edwin of Northumbria 617-633  
Oswald of Northumbria 634-641  
Oswy of Northumbria 641-670  

Although the exact nature of the Bretwaldaship is now unclear, these seven kings can be regarded as overlords who held sway over some or all of the other kingdoms of Britain.  The Old English  word bretwalda (Britain ruler) had it's  origins in the old Germanic word brytenwealda meaning "wide ruler" or perhaps "king who rules other kings."  Offa of Mercia and Ecgberht of Wessex are also often listed with the Bretwaldas.

The Anglo-Saxon Kings of all England

Alfred the Great                       a 871-899  
Edward the Elder                      a 899-924  
Aethelstan 924-939  
Edmund 939-946  
Eadred 946-955  
Eadwig 955-959  
Edgar 959-975  
Edward the Martyr 975-978  
Aethelred II 978-1016 THE HIDDEN LINK
Edmund Ironside         1016  

The Danish Kings of England

Cnut the Dane 1016-1035  
Harold Harefoot 1035-1040  
Harthacnut 1040-1042  

The Anglo-Saxon Kings of England

Edward the Confessor 1042-1066  
Harold II           1066  

The Norman Kings of England

William the Conqueror             a 1066-1087  
William Rufus 1087-1100  
Henry I 1100-1135  
Stephen 1135-1154  

The Plantagenet Family

Henry II 1154-1189  
Richard the Lionhearted 1189-1199  
John 1199-1216  
Henry III 1216-1272  
Edward I 1272-1307  
Edward II 1307-1327 Deposed and Murdered
Edward III 1327-1377  
Richard II 1377-1399 Deposed in 1399 - Murdered in 1400

The House of Lancaster

Henry IV 1399-1413  
Henry V 1413-1422  
Henry VI 1422-1461 First Reign

The House of York

Edward IV 1461-1470 First Reign

The House of Lancaster

Henry VI 1470-1471 Second Reign - Deposed and Murdered

The House of York

Edward IV 1471-1483 Second Reign
Edward V           1483 Deposed and Murdered
Richard III 1483-1485  

The House of Tudor

Henry VII 1485-1509  
Henry VIII 1509-1547  
Edward VI 1547-1553  
Mary 1553-1558  
Elizabeth I 1558-1603  

The House of Stuart

James I 1603-1625  
Charles I 1625-1649 Executed 1649

The Commonwealth of England

The Long Parliament 1649-1653  
Oliver Cromwell 1653-1658 Lord Protector of England
Richard Cromwell 1658-1660 Lord Protector of England - Died 1712

The House of Stuart

Charles II 1660-1685  
James II 1685-1688 Deposed 1688 - Died 1701
William and Mary 1689-1694  
William of Orange 1694-1702  
Anne 1702-1714  

The House of Hanover

George I 1714-1727  
George II 1727-1760  
George III 1760-1820  
George IV 1820-1830  
William IV 1830-1837  
Victoria 1837-1901  

The House of Saxe Coburg Gotha

Edward VII 1901-1910  
George V 1910-1917  

The House of Windsor

George V 1917-1936  
Edward VIII          1936 Abdicated 1936 - Died 1972
George VI 1936-1952  
Elizabeth II 1952-  

NOTES: (1) Those rulers who are known to have issued coins are highlighted in blue(2) Edward V is not listed here as a coin issuing ruler as it is now commonly thought that the issue once attributed to his reign was begun during the last weeks of Edward IV (3) Edward VIII is not listed  here as a coin issuing ruler as none of the issues of his reign were intended for circulation. (4) The "sceatta" coinage of the early Saxon kingdoms was issued during the reigns of several monarchs not listed here as coin issuers as these coins are anonymous and  not attributable to a specific reign.

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